Tag Archives: smoke mask

Aircraft Fire Survival – Manchester British Airtours Flight 28M

Lessons Learned from British Airtours Flight 28M

On 22 August 1985, British Airtours Flight 28M caught fire on the runway after an engine failure on takeoff, the engine failure punctured a fuel cell and caused a massive fire that killed 52 of the of the 131 passengers aboard.

Forensic investigation later deduced toxic smoke was the main killer, and that most passengers would have survived had they had some form of respiratory protection. Most died from smoke inhalation of carbon monoxide and  hydrogen cyanide which are common constituents of combustion gases.

Survivors stated that:

The effect of the smoke was shocking one breath of the toxic gases made them feel debilitated and they knew that a second or third breath would likely kill them.

Workplace Fire Warden TrainingI personally now always take an Xcaper Kit as carry on baggage. Knowing it will provide the exact type of protection the investigators recommended, without the disadvantages of a smoke hood. Not only am I protected when traveling, but while staying in foreign hotels with less reliable fire safety.


To see where they discuss the cause of death go to 33:00 minute point

An Xcaper Kit can provide life saving time to escape almost any situation.

Don’t wait buy one today

Disaster mask

Xcaper Mask Testimonial

Xcaper Testimonials – Xcaper Saved my Ass

Xcaper Manta X Mask, and Filter Testimonial

Xcaper Mask TestimonialJust wanted to let you know, the Xcaper filter you sent me.. SAVED MY ASS! I was able to extend an extra line and contain the brush fire in heavy, heavy smoke. Youʻve made me a believer and I will definitely order more! BTW, do u have any filters in a bigger size? we got some big boys in Hawaii. Thanks again Sharon. Iʻll be sending you in the mail some aloha from Hawaii for you and your company. Once again, thank you and God bless

FF1 Kamehalani Ortiz

Xcaper Disaster Masks – Will you be prepared to escape a fire?

Fire, Smoke and Disaster Masks from Xcaper

THE XCAPER FILTER
IS INTENDED TO PROTECT IN CASE OF A FIRE, EMERGENCY OR TERRORIST ATTACK.
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Breathe. See.  Think Clearly.  Escape the fire
Simple, Effective Technology
maskXcaper is a patented, easy to use mask, that filters out smoke & gases from a fire allowing you to breathe and think more clearly.
gogglesCombined with “see-clear” fogless goggles that prevent smoke & particulates from reaching the eyes
Xcaper provides the valuable time you need to navigate your way to famsafety from:
Any building or situation where people may need time and clarity to evacuate from an type of emergency.
•Corporate Offices & Public buildings
•Condominiums, Apartments & Assistant Living Centers
•Hotels, Motels and Hostels
•College Dormitories
•Subway Commuters and Travelers
•Private Homes
•Cruises, Boats or Sailboat
•Nuclear  Reactors
•Military
•Hospitals

Simple To Use

mask2 mask-goggIntuitive design – can not be worn improperly as long as it covers breathing passages
Easy to help those needing assistance to put it on
Allows full vision and communication
One size fits all – all face shapes, sizes and facial hair
Can be held to your face – if straps break

Available When You Need It

Comes in a vacuum sealed bag – 5 year shelf life
xcaperLightweight (Mask 1.6 oz) (Kit 3.1 oz)
Kits come with Light, Whistle and Goggle
The Hip Pack has Velcro® straps on the back for simple transfer to arm or belt in an emergency
MyXcaper Kit is slim-packed for briefcases, backpacks, purses

Protects For 30 Minutes Or More

The mask is factory sealed, easy to open packaging ensuring use only in an emergency
Once opened the Xcaper Mask provides continuous protection for up to 30 minutes or longer depending upon conditions

Simple, Effective Technology

Xcaper is a patented, easy to use mask, that filters out smoke & gases from a fire allowing you to breathe and think more clearly.
Combined with “see-clear” fogless goggles that prevent smoke & particulates from reaching the eyes
Xcaper provides the valuable time you need to navigate your way to safety

Technology At A Glance

Patented moist direct-contact filter absorbs hazardous toxins common to smoke from fires (like Carbon Monoxide, Acrolein, and Hydrogen Cyanide) and particulates down to 3/10 of one micron in size
Moisturizing agent is a 100% all natural plant extract that allows for easy breathing
Lab verified Xcaper technology has been proven in countless real-life fires by over 70,000 professional firefighters since 1999
Unopened shelf life of 5 years

Testing and Certifications

U.S. Navy Safety & Survivability Office Report
RNK Environmental, Inc. (Fort Mitchell, KY)
Firefighter Rescue Inc, NY, NY. (Rescue 1 retired)
WMD Preparedness, Inc. (New York, NY)
Verified in independent laboratory tests to filter particulate matter down to 3/10th of one micron and absorb high levels of most gases, including Carbon Monoxide

Deployed to More than 1 MILLION Corporate Employees

AIG Insurance, Worldwide.
Lehman Brothers, Worldwide
Pfizer Corporation, Worldwide
Holland America Cruise Ships Crew Quarters
Simpson Thacher Bartlett
Invest Corp.
Capital Group
Fidelity Investment
General Motors
Shell International

Xcaper Story

lXcaper Industries, LLC which was founded in 1994 to market the Xcaper moist direct contact smoke particulate filter, a highly effective mask for smoke protection in fires.  Xcaper obtained the exclusive rights to manufacture market and distribute the original patented technology from the inventor, Roy Martin.  Since 1995 there has been extensive research and development that virtually has created new technology based upon the inventor’s original concept. This new technology was patented in November of 1999 and is the basis of all of the Company’s current products. The Martin patent has expired and the need for the exclusive rights to manufacture market and distribute are no longer necessary. New package design and marketing material have been created as well.  To date the company has nearly 50,000 firefighters around the world using our products with only praises for how effective the filter is in smoke. There is no competition to this new moist direct contact filter technology. Xcaper has distributors in most states. With the Xcaper Civilian Smoke Mask making is debut in late June 2002 after the September 11th attack on the World Trade Center and the Japanese earthquake disaster in 2011, the company has a multitude of new marketing opportunities. Having readily available protection from smoke and or radiated dust is on the minds of every American now; we have the most practical emergency filter mask product available in the world in the Xcaper Civilian Smoke Mask.

About Xcaper Industries

Xcaper Industries, LLC, invented and manufactures the world’s only moist direct contact smoke protection mask. Featuring a patented technology, the Xcaper Mask incorporates an all-natural plant extract and negatively charged styrene beads to absorb harmful gases and particulate matter common to smoke. Founded in 1998, Xcaper Industries is based in Irvine, California and markets professional quality smoke masks to firefighters and emergency service workers, and offers a civilian version of it’s professional quality products to businesses and consumers through Distributors, Sales Reps. and Internet Sales

Will you be prepared to escape a fire?

Breathe. See.  Think Clearly.  Escape the fire
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Emergency Smoke Mask

Xcaper Smoke Masks – How they Work

XCAPER FILTER – HOW IT WORKS

 SOME NOTES ON THE OPERATION OF THE XCAPER™ SMOKE FILTER AND HOW IT CAMPARES TO OTHER AIR PURIFYING FILTERS OF DIFFERING CONSTRUCTION

The XCAPER™ Smoke Mask works by trapping gaseous and particulate contaminants (often referred to as aerosols by smoke researchers) within a filtering medium similar to the “packed bed” filters commonly used in the chemical processing industry.  Many such so-called mechanical filters, which do not rely on chemically reactive or catalytic components, are in widespread use in hazardous chemical and industrial environments; their efficiencies can approach 100%.  They are often used to purify air by filtering out not only dusts and mists but also organic and acid gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and many others.  Many varieties of mechanical filter type purifying masks are available through industrial and laboratory safety supply houses.  Several have been tested and investigated by NIOSH and other organizations for both filtering efficiency and tightness of fit.  Vendors who market such personal respiratory devices through established industrial safety supply outlets publish performance data that suggests that these marks can be very effective filtering devices, indeed, when used within their prescribed limits.

Claims have been made that higher filtering efficiencies can often be achieved with “chemical” filters, those that rely on transformation of harmful contaminants by involving them in a chemical reaction as they pass through the filter medium.  The reaction changes the chemical nature of the contaminant to something harmless (usually a relatively inert solid which remains trapped within the filter).  This type of filter, however, must be chosen for a specific toxic species or a very limited range of species, as the reaction mechanism is tailored to a particular type of substance.

Since smoke from fires is a complex mix of particles, liquid droplets, gases, and sticky agglomerated mixtures of all three, chemically reactive filtering media, regardless of sophistication, cannot be expected to provide sufficient protection for all of the products of combustion which may be a threat to life-safety.  As reactive media fill up with trapped particulates and the residues of reacted products, they become markedly less efficient.  Breathing through them also becomes more difficult as the partially blocked air passageways produce a large pressure drop, which the wearer must overcome by breathing through the filter with more force.  Chemically reactive filters also generate considerable heat through the chemical reaction mechanism, causing the breathable air to become in many cases too hot.  The purported advantages of high capture and retention efficiencies of such filters, therefore, would not be borne out in most real fire situations.

Unlike chemical filters, the Xcaper filter can act effectively on a wide range of substances and actually become more efficient with use, as the trapped contaminates act to further obstruct the path of newly entering contaminants.  The air passageways remain relatively free of obstruction since the filter acts primarily by adsorbing contaminants onto electrochemically active surfaces of otherwise inert filter material.  No additional reaction products are created, and the adsorbed material is effectively removed from further interference with the passing stream. Adsorption continues even with particulate build-up because the micro scale electrochemical activity continues unabated.  The growing quantity of adsorbed material acts only to further slow the passage of the coagulation aerosols, providing more “residence” time for the capture to take place.  The filter, thus, becomes more efficient over time.  Saturation will be approached but only very slowly and, as field tests have shown, the time to saturation is much greater than the time of anticipated use.

EXAMINATION OF THE POSSIBLE MICROSCALE PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL MECHANISMS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE OBSERVED PERFORMANCE OF THE XCAPER™ SMOKE FILTER

The XCAPER™ is a new type of smoke filtering device claiming a very high level of efficiency in filtering out the toxins and particulate products of combustion from common fires.  A professional fire protection device called WHIFFS™ Wildfire Hazardous Inhalation Firefighters Filtration System holds an XCAPER™ filter in a protective NOMEX™ shroud that is worn over the nose and mouth and allows the wearer to breathe normally, maintain a clear line of vision, and keep both hands free.

The XCAPER™ filter has undergone rigorous laboratory testing through an independent laboratory and it has also been informally field tested under a variety of conditions.  Since the filter eliminates a significant percentage of the gas phase products of combustion, a question arises as to how the observed effectiveness of the filter in preventing toxic substance build-up in the body for extended periods of up to 4 hours or more can be explained.  The purpose of this paper is to identify several possible physical and chemical mechanisms by which the filter’s performance may be explained and is the result of extensive discussions with individuals highly educated in fire science.

The functional aspects of the filtering process are complex.  They are dependent on details of the filter’s construction as well as on the physical and environmental conditions of use.  Among the most readily identifiable mechanisms are the following:

(1)  As a rather densely packed collection of small plastic beads in a contained natural gel bath, the filter behaves most fundamentally as a simple physical adsorption device, utilizing a large enclosed volume for “storage” of breath-entrained combustion particulate matter.

(2)  The active thickness of the filter offers substantial interference with the path of smoke particulates drawn in through the normal breathing process.  Given the internal packing structure of fine beads and relatively small void fraction it is clear, even without quantification of the effect, that the mean travel distance (mean path length) of smoke particle from outer to inner surface of the filter would be several times the direct linear thickness of the filter.  As interstitial spaces (between the beads) fill with trapped particulates, mean path lengths would increase far more, delaying arrival of particulates at the inner surface.

(3)  Over the course of active travel of combustion particulates, well known “aging” effects alter both their character and behavior.  This widely observed phenomenon, generally termed coagulation, describes the agglomeration and coalescing behavior of gaseous, liquid, small solid and aerosol products into much larger masses whose number and size vary in a complex manner with both time and ambient temperature.  Coagulation traps large numbers of toxic gas molecules within the clotted mass, the effect being enhanced by longer residence times and cooler temperatures.

(4)  The physical structure of a smoke particulate may be thought of as characterized by a large surface area and a variable surface electric charge resulting from the polar structures of its constituent molecules.  Polar charges of the far smaller molecules of the remaining free gaseous combustion products will eventually cause electrochemical adsorption of the gases onto the surfaces of the particulates.  Due to the very large-scale difference between a gas molecule and even the smallest particulates, it is likely that thousands of gas molecules can adhere to the surface of a single particulate given sufficient residence time for absorption to occur.

(5)  Most common gases, especially those typically found as combustion by-products, are soluble in water and other solvents and natural gels.  Free gases not yet trapped by aerosol formation or by adsorption/coagulation processes are subject to secondary entrapment through dissociation in a solvent gel.

Still other mechanisms may be of importance, particularly as they effect the movement of ionic or surface charged species through the filter.  Among these are electrolytic solution tension effects (i.e., Helmholtz double layer effects), electrophoretic effect, and potential equilibrium altering gas-solvent reactions.  Such “secondary” mechanisms could be considered insignificant, but the exceedingly long reaction residence times characteristic of this type of filter may lead to enhanced effects which would not normally be expected.

 SUMMARY

In view of the major roles played by such processes as adsorption, aerosol formation and coagulation in typical fire and smoke aging processes, it is likely that these mechanisms, along with the added effects of absorption, interference and solvent-induced dissociation, are also important in accounting for the observed performance of the Xcaper filter.  It is also possible that other mechanisms related to microscale details of the electrochemical environment within the filter can be identified as possible contributors.

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